DETERMINANTS OF SUBSISTENCE FARMERS PARTICIPATION TO NON-FARM ACTIVITIES IN ITANG SPECIAL DISTRICT, GAMBELLA REGION, ETHIOPIA
ABSTRACT:The subsistence farmers are highly relying on farming activities as the main source of survival in Gambella region particularly in Itang Special District. Thisthreatens the livelihood of most subsistence farmers in the district. The aim of the study was to examine determinants ofsubsistence farmers’ participation to non-farm activities in the study area. Multistage sampling technique was used to choose the study area and participants. The data werecollected from 150 randomly selected subsistence farmers in the study area. These data were collected through households’ interview and document analysis. Moreover, the data were analyzed by using mean, standard deviation, percentage, frequency, chi-square test, t-test and binary logistic regression model.
A result found that trading livestock, selling wild products, craftsman,trading of food and drinks and employed in organizations were the main non-farm activities among the subsistence farmers in the study area. In addition, the credit access, access to remittance, transport access, market access, skill training, livestock holding size and income influence the participation of households to non-farm activities. The concerned bodies need to strengthen the local institutions and alternative activities in the study area.
INCULCATING VALUES AND ETHICS AMONG STUDENTS THROUGH STEAM EDUCATION
ABSTRACT:STEAM Education is an approach to learning that uses Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts and Mathematics as access points for guiding student inquiry, dialogue, and critical thinking. Research shows that STEAM is a promising approach to positively impacting student achievement and teacher efficacy. A researcher’s study conducted in 2016, investigated the impact of STEAM lessons on physical science learning in grades 3 to 5 in high poverty elementary schools in an urban district indicated that students who received just nine hours of STEAM instruction made improvements in their science achievement (Brouillette, L., & Graham,). Another study in 2014 shows that connecting STEAM and literacy can positively impact cognitive development, increase literacy and math skills, and help students reflect meaningfully on their work and that of their peers (Cunnington, Marisol, Andrea Kantrowitz, Susanne Harnett, and Aline Hill-Ries.). This is further supported by a study on the relationship between theatre arts and student literacy and mathematics achievement from 2014. “Results showed that students whose language arts curricula were infused with theatre arts often outperformed their control group counterparts, who received no arts integration, in both math and language arts” (Inoa, R., Weltsek, G., &Tabone, C.).
The writer in this paper would like to give importance to STEAM education to the present generation children who are highly intelligent with less patience,discipline and values whose main aim is to not only provide students with the knowledge of Science,technology,engineering,art and mathematics skill but also inculcate in them the values of life that follows principles & ethics in their day todays life byproviding them the projects that blend the values Like integrity,patience,honesty,empathy,courage,virtues,self-respect, right conduct, truth, love, nonviolence, cooperation, computer ethics, environmental ethics etc. Which eventually bring peace on the planet earth.It’s high time that these children who are the future generations of India should be given proper direction by channelizing their energy for productive use. Socrates and Aristotle are credited with the concept that the ‘pursuit of knowledge is the highest good’ and that this is the basis of education (Ulich, 1947). The first major educational philosopher who made significant statements that can give strength to the development of the STEM movement is Descartes. Comenius was a contemporary of Descartes who stated that ‘education is a preparation for life (Comenius, 1947). Comenius made a strong argument for delivering a holistic approach to education with the following statement: ‘individual sciences are badly taught unless a simple and general survey of the total knowledge is given before… one ought never to instruct anybody in such a way [of] perfecting one brand of knowledge to the exclusion of others (Comenius, 1947).’ This clause establishes a basis for applying integrative education.
The Study of Dangers and Countermeasures of Fake News in Social Media
ABSTRACT:Fake news as one of a normal phenomenon all over the world, it exertsa great impact on both individuals and our society. With the popularity of social media, fake news increasingly invades our lives, even brings disadvantages to institutions or countries. According to the analysis of several examples, the study aims to improve the phenomenon of fake news in social media so as to promise the authenticity of news in the field of media and communication.
Even though it is difficult to achieve nowadays, especially in the current information era, in fact, it calls for the collective effort by the government, information producers and social media platform, as well as audiences. In addition, this study also expects to offer a reference to future journalism practitioners and related academic researchers.
Kohonen Self Organizing Map (SOM)-aided Predictions of Aquifer Water Struck Levels in the Merti Aquifer, Northern Kenya
ABSTRACT:The aquifer water struck levels in the Merti aquifer were assessed using the Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps algorithm, which employs the Neural Networks. This algorithm mimics the biological sensory and motor neurons. The variable was inferred via predicting the aquifer ground water levels , then subtracting the same from the elevations, measured in meters above the sea levels, of the proposed well point mapped, which is one of the three variables generated using the hand-held GPS. The objective of the study is to help develop a simple prediction model for aquifer well depths in the Merti aquifer, to be used alongside the geoelectrical models generated during geophysical surveys, so as to enhance and modernize groundwater management plan for the Merti Aquifer. Data on well hydraulics for the Isiolo, Garissa and parts of Wajir (south) counties were used to generate the model predictors, employing the Kohonen R package, which clusters and predicts variables using this neural network algorithm developed by Teuvo Kohonen.
The algorithm was then used to predict the expected groundwater levels of a new area that has not been developed, and this value was subsequently subtracted from the elevation levels, thereby generating water struck levels. The variables employed to achieve this task were longitudes, latitudes, elevation, aquifer depth, resistivity, and the groundwater levels, (gwl) in meters (below ground level) bgl. To predict the gwl of a newly proposed drilling point, the hydrogeological data was run on R platform and models generated inferred and interpreted.The new model was then used to predict the gwl of the new site. Subtracted from elevation of the area, wsl was derived, thusThe study concludes that the neural network SOM mapping algorithm is an accurate predictor of the wsl in the Merti aquifer, as it clusters geological zones bearing the same groundwater levels and aquifer depths together. It should therefore be a useful stochastic hydrological tool for decision making on matters groundwater development in the Merti aquifer.
TEACHING COMPETENCIES AND STUDENTS’ LEARNING SKILLS
ABSTRACT:This study was conducted to determine the teaching competencies, Individual Performance Commitment and Review Form (IPCRF) performance of teachers and students’ learning skills.
Specifically, it described the teaching competencies in terms of facilitating skills, classroom management, evaluation skills, mastery of the subject matter, and communication skills; performance rating of teachers and students’ learning skills in terms of preparedness for class, completing homework, class participation and application skills.
Further, it determined the significant influence of teaching competencies on students’ learning skills and relationship between the performance rating of teachers and the students’ learning skills, and the teaching competencies and teachers’ IPCRF from the six (6) selected Secondary Schools in President Roxas, North Cotabato.
Stratified sampling method with equal allocation was employed to obtain two hundred forty (240) students and twenty four (24) teachers as respondents. The survey questionnaires were adopted, modified and validated with Cronbach’s reliability test and gained an alpha value of 0.786. The test was conducted with 20 respondents or 8.33% of the total samples of the study.
Moreover, descriptive method of research was utilized with mean and weighted mean to determine the level of teaching competencies and students’ learning skills; regression analysis was used to determine the influence of the teachers’ teaching competencies on students' learning skills and Pearson r analysis was used to determine the relationship between the performance rating of teachers and students’ learning skills, and the teaching competencies and teachers’ IPCRF.
Findings revealed thatthe teachers’ teaching competencies particularly facilitating skills is the only predictor that significantly influenced the learning skills of the students such as preparedness for class, completing homework, class participation and application skills.
On the basis of the result, it could be derived that competent teachers play an important role in enhancing the students’ learning skills to the extent that the students develop self – learning skills as they practice their gained knowledge from their teachers.